Основные математические термины на английском языке
absolute value the distance a number or expression is from zero on a number line
acute angle an angle that measures less than 90°
acute triangle a triangle with every angle that measures less than 90°
adjacent angles two angles that have the same vertex, share one side, and do not overlap
angle two rays connected by a vertex
arc a curved section of a circle
area the number of square units inside a shape
associative property of addition when adding three or more addends, the grouping of the addends does not affect the sum.
associative property ofmultiplication when multiplying three or more factors, the grouping of the factors does not affect the product.
average the quantity found by adding all the numbers in a set and dividing the sum by the number of addends; also known as the mean
base a number used as a repeated factor in an exponential expression.
binomial a polynomial with two unlike terms, such as 2x + 4y
bisect divide into two equal parts
central angle an angle formed by an arc in a circle
chord a line segment that goes through a circle, with its endpoints on the circle
circumference the distance around a circle
coefficient a number placed next to a variable
combination the arrangement of a group of items in which the order doesn’t matter
common factors the factors shared by two or more numbers
common multiples multiples shared by two or more numbers
commutative property of addition when using addition, the order of the addends does not affect the sum.
commutative property of multiplication when using multiplication, the order of the factors does not affect the product
complementary angles two angles whose sum is 90°
composite number a number that has more than two factors
congruent identical in shape and size
coordinate plane a grid divided into four quadrants by both a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis
coordinate points points located on a coordinate plane
cross product a product of the numerator of one fraction and the denominator of a second fraction
denominator the bottom number in a fraction.
diagonal a line segment between two non-adjacent vertices of a polygon
diameter a chord that passes through the center of a circle—the longest line you can draw in a circle. The term is used not only for this line segment, but also for its length.
difference the result of subtracting one number from another
distributive property when multiplying a sum (or a difference) by a third number, you can multiply each of the first two numbers by the third number and then add (or subtract) the products.
dividend a number that is divided by another number
divisor a number that is divided into another number
domain all the x values of a function
equation a mathematical statement that contains an equal sign
equiangular polygon a polygon with all angles of equal measure
equidistant the same distance
equilateral triangle a triangle with three equal sides and three equal angles
even number a number that can be divided evenly by the number 2 (resulting in a whole number)
exponent a number that tells you how many times a number, the base, is a factor in the product.
exterior angle an angle on the outer sides of two lines cut by a transversal; or, an angle outside a triangle
factor a number that is multiplied to find a product
function a relationship in which one value depends upon another value
geometric sequence a sequence that has a constant ratio between terms
greatest common factor the largest of all the common factors of two or more numbers
hypotenuse the longest leg of a right triangle. The hypotenuse is always opposite the right angle in a right triangle.
improper fraction a fraction whose numerator is greater than or equal to its denominator. A fraction greater than or equal to 1.
integers positive or negative whole numbers and the number zero
interior angle an angle on the inner sides of two lines cut by a transversal
intersection the elements that two (or more) sets have in common
irrational numbers numbers that cannot be expressed as terminating or repeating decimals
isosceles triangle a triangle with two equal sides
least common denominator (LCD) the smallest number divisible by two or more denominators
least common multiple (LCM) the smallest of all the common multiples of two or more numbers
like terms two or more terms that contain the exact same variables
line a straight path that continues infinitely in two directions
line segment the part of a line between (and including) two points
major arc an arc greater than or equal to 180°
matrix a rectangular array of numbers
mean the quantity found by adding all the numbers in a set and dividing the sum by the number of addends; also known as the average
median the middle number in a set of numbers arranged from least to greatest
midpoint the point at the exact middle of a line segment
minor arc an arc less than or equal to 180°
mode the number that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers
monomial a polynomial with one term, such as 5ab
multiple a number that can be obtained by multiplying a number x by a whole number
negative number a number less than zero
numerator the top number in a fraction
obtuse angle an angle that measures greater than 90°
obtuse triangle a triangle with an angle that measures greater than 90°
odd number a number that cannot be divided evenly by the number 2
order of operations the specific order to follow when calculating multiple operations: parentheses, exponents, multiply/divide, add/subtract
ordered pair a location of a point on the coordinate plane in the form of (x,y). The x represents the location of the point on the horizontal x-axis, and the y represents the location of the point on the vertical y-axis.
origin coordinate point (0,0): the point on a coordinate plane at which the x-axis and y-axis intersect
parallel lines two lines in a plane that do not intersect
parallelogram a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides
percent a ratio that compares a number to 100
perfect square a whole number whose square root is also a whole number
perimeter the distance around a figure
permutation the arrangement of a group of items in a specific order
perpendicular lines lines that intersect to form right angles
polygon a closed figure with three or more sides
polynomial a monomial or the sum or difference of two or more monomials
positive number a number greater than zero
prime factorization the process of breaking down factors into prime numbers
prime number a number that has only 1 and itself as factors
probability the likelihood that a specific event will occur
product the result of multiplying two or more factors
proper fraction a fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator. A fraction less than 1.
proportion an equality of two ratios
Pythagorean theorem the formula , where a and b represent the lengths of the legs and c represents the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle
Pythagorean triple a set of three whole numbers that satisfies the Pythagorean theorem, , such as 3:4:5 and 5:12:13
quadratic equation an equation in the form , where a, b, and c are numbers and a≠0
quadratic trinomial an expression that contains an term as well as an x term
quadrilateral a four-sided polygon
quotient the result of dividing two or more numbers
radical the symbol used to signify a root operation
radicand the number inside of a radical
radius a line segment inside a circle with one point on the radius and the other point at the center on the circle. The radius is half the diameter. This term can also be used to refer to the length of such a line segment. The plural of radius is radii.
range all the solutions to f(x) in a function
ratio a comparison of two quantities measured in the same units
rational numbers all numbers that can be written as fractions, terminating decimals, and repeating decimals
ray half of a line. A ray has one endpoint and continues infinitely in one direction.
reciprocals two numbers whose product is 1.
rectangle a parallelogram with four right angles
regular polygon a polygon with all equal sides
rhombus a parallelogram with four equal sides
right angle an angle that measures exactly 90°
right triangle a triangle with an angle that measures exactly 90°
scalene triangle a triangle with no equal sides
sector a slice of a circle formed by two radii and an arc
set a collection of certain numbers
similar polygons two or more polygons with equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides in proportion.
simplify to combine like terms and reduce an equation to its most basic form
slope the steepness of a line
solid a three-dimensional figure
square a parallelogram with four equal sides and four right angles
square of a number the product of a number and itself
square root one of two equal factors whose product is the square
sum the result of adding one number to another
supplementary angles two angles whose sum is 180°
surface area the sum of the areas of the faces of a solid
tangent a line that touches a curve (such as a circle) at a single point without cutting across the curve. A tangent line that touches a circle at point P is perpendicular to the circle’s radius drawn to point P.
transversal a line that intersects two or more lines
trinomial a polynomial with three unlike terms, such as y3 + 8z – 2
union the combination of the elements of two or more sets
variable a letter that represents an unknown number
vertex a point at which two lines, rays, or line segments connect
vertical angles two opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines
volume the number of cubic units inside a three-dimensional figure
whole numbers the counting numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .
zero-product rule if the product of two or more factors is 0, then at least one of the factors is 0.