### Основные математические термины на английском языке

**absolute value** the distance a number or expression is from zero on a number line

**acute angle** an angle that measures less than 90°

**acute triangle** a triangle with every angle that measures less than 90°

**adjacent angles** two angles that have the same vertex, share one side, and do not overlap

**angle** two rays connected by a vertex

**arc** a curved section of a circle

**area** the number of square units inside a shape

**associative property of addition** when adding three or more addends, the grouping of the addends does not affect the sum.

**associative property ofmultiplication** when multiplying three or more factors, the grouping of the factors does not affect the product.

**average the quantity** found by adding all the numbers in a set and dividing the sum by the number of addends; also known as the **mean**

**base** a number used as a repeated factor in an exponential expression.

**binomial** a polynomial with two unlike terms, such as 2x + 4y

**bisect** divide into two equal parts

**central angle** an angle formed by an arc in a circle

**chord** a line segment that goes through a circle, with its endpoints on the circle

**circumference** the distance around a circle

**coefficient** a number placed next to a variable

**combination** the arrangement of a group of items in which the order doesn’t matter

**common factors** the factors shared by two or more numbers

**common multiples** multiples shared by two or more numbers

**commutative property of addition** when using addition, the order of the addends does not affect the sum.

**commutative property of multiplication** when using multiplication, the order of the factors does not affect the product

**complementary angles** two angles whose sum is 90°

**composite number** a number that has more than two factors

**congruent** identical in shape and size

**coordinate plane** a grid divided into four quadrants by both a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis

**coordinate points** points located on a coordinate plane

**cross product** a product of the numerator of one fraction and the denominator of a second fraction

**denominator** the bottom number in a fraction.

**diagonal** a line segment between two non-adjacent vertices of a polygon

**diameter** a chord that passes through the center of a circle—the longest line you can draw in a circle. The term is used not only for this line segment, but also for its length.

**difference** the result of subtracting one number from another

**distributive property** when multiplying a sum (or a difference) by a third number, you can multiply each of the first two numbers by the third number and then add (or subtract) the products.

**dividend** a number that is divided by another number

**divisor** a number that is divided into another number

**domain** all the x values of a function

**equation** a mathematical statement that contains an equal sign

**equiangular polygon** a polygon with all angles of equal measure

**equidistant** the same distance

**equilateral triangle** a triangle with three equal sides and three equal angles

**even number** a number that can be divided evenly by the number 2 (resulting in a whole number)

**exponent** a number that tells you how many times a number, the base, is a factor in the product.

**exterior angle** an angle on the outer sides of two lines cut by a transversal; or, an angle outside a triangle

**factor** a number that is multiplied to find a product

**function** a relationship in which one value depends upon another value

**geometric sequence** a sequence that has a constant ratio between terms

**greatest common factor** the largest of all the common factors of two or more numbers

**hypotenuse** the longest leg of a right triangle. The hypotenuse is always opposite the right angle in a right triangle.

**improper fraction** a fraction whose numerator is greater than or equal to its denominator. A fraction greater than or equal to 1.

**integers** positive or negative whole numbers and the number zero

**interior angle** an angle on the inner sides of two lines cut by a transversal

**intersection** the elements that two (or more) sets have in common

**irrational numbers** numbers that cannot be expressed as terminating or repeating decimals

**isosceles triangle** a triangle with two equal sides

**least common denominator (LCD)** the smallest number divisible by two or more denominators

**least common multiple (LCM)** the smallest of all the common multiples of two or more numbers

**like terms** two or more terms that contain the exact same variables

**line** a straight path that continues infinitely in two directions

**line segment** the part of a line between (and including) two points

**major arc** an arc greater than or equal to 180°

**matrix** a rectangular array of numbers

**mean** the quantity found by adding all the numbers in a set and dividing the sum by the number of addends; also known as the **average**

**median** the middle number in a set of numbers arranged from least to greatest

**midpoint** the point at the exact middle of a line segment

**minor arc** an arc less than or equal to 180°

**mode** the number that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers

**monomial** a polynomial with one term, such as 5ab

**multiple** a number that can be obtained by multiplying a number x by a whole number

**negative number** a number less than zero

**numerator** the top number in a fraction

**obtuse angle** an angle that measures greater than 90°

**obtuse triangle** a triangle with an angle that measures greater than 90°

**odd number** a number that cannot be divided evenly by the number 2

**order of operations** the specific order to follow when calculating multiple operations: parentheses, exponents, multiply/divide, add/subtract

**ordered pair** a location of a point on the coordinate plane in the form of (x,y). The x represents the location of the point on the horizontal x-axis, and the y represents the location of the point on the vertical y-axis.

**origin** coordinate point (0,0): the point on a coordinate plane at which the x-axis and y-axis intersect

**parallel lines** two lines in a plane that do not intersect

**parallelogram** a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides

**percent** a ratio that compares a number to 100

**perfect square** a whole number whose square root is also a whole number

**perimeter** the distance around a figure

**permutation** the arrangement of a group of items in a specific order

**perpendicular** lines lines that intersect to form right angles

**polygon** a closed figure with three or more sides

**polynomial** a monomial or the sum or difference of two or more monomials

**positive number** a number greater than zero

**prime factorization** the process of breaking down factors into prime numbers

**prime number** a number that has only 1 and itself as factors

**probability** the likelihood that a specific event will occur

**product** the result of multiplying two or more factors

**proper fraction** a fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator. A fraction less than 1.

**proportion** an equality of two ratios

**Pythagorean theorem** the formula , where a and b represent the lengths of the legs and c represents the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle

**Pythagorean triple** a set of three whole numbers that satisfies the Pythagorean theorem, , such as 3:4:5 and 5:12:13

**quadratic equation** an equation in the form , where a, b, and c are numbers and a≠0

**quadratic trinomial** an expression that contains an term as well as an x term

**quadrilateral** a four-sided polygon

**quotient** the result of dividing two or more numbers

**radical** the symbol used to signify a root operation

**radicand** the number inside of a radical

**radius** a line segment inside a circle with one point on the radius and the other point at the center on the circle. The radius is half the diameter. This term can also be used to refer to the length of such a line segment. The plural of radius is radii.

**range** all the solutions to f(x) in a function

**ratio** a comparison of two quantities measured in the same units

**rational numbers** all numbers that can be written as fractions, terminating decimals, and repeating decimals

**ray** half of a line. A ray has one endpoint and continues infinitely in one direction.

**reciprocals** two numbers whose product is 1.

**rectangle** a parallelogram with four right angles

**regular polygon** a polygon with all equal sides

**rhombus** a parallelogram with four equal sides

**right angle** an angle that measures exactly 90°

**right triangle** a triangle with an angle that measures exactly 90°

**scalene triangle** a triangle with no equal sides

**sector** a slice of a circle formed by two radii and an arc

**set** a collection of certain numbers

**similar polygons** two or more polygons with equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides in proportion.

**simplify** to combine like terms and reduce an equation to its most basic form

**slope** the steepness of a line

**solid** a three-dimensional figure

**square** a parallelogram with four equal sides and four right angles

**square of a number** the product of a number and itself

**square root** one of two equal factors whose product is the square

**sum** the result of adding one number to another

**supplementary angles** two angles whose sum is 180°

**surface area** the sum of the areas of the faces of a solid

**tangent** a line that touches a curve (such as a circle) at a single point without cutting across the curve. A tangent line that touches a circle at point P is perpendicular to the circle’s radius drawn to point P.

**transversal** a line that intersects two or more lines

**trinomial** a polynomial with three unlike terms, such as y3 + 8z – 2

**union** the combination of the elements of two or more sets

**variable** a letter that represents an unknown number

**vertex** a point at which two lines, rays, or line segments connect

**vertical angles** two opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines

**volume** the number of cubic units inside a three-dimensional figure

**whole numbers** the counting numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .

**zero-product rule** if the product of two or more factors is 0, then at least one of the factors is 0.

## One Comment

Deesays:16.10.2016 at 19:00

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